into the semantic basis of makoms is directly
connected with the study of the origins of this
art form. The music of makoms is first of all
characterized as "sacred" melodies,
passed down to us from our ancestors. This can
be supplements by the following:
the feeling-listening reception of the makom form;
the musical sense significance of those terms
which historically preceded the term makom, and
the semantics of which is connected with "path",
"road" (rolch, tarika, ravish, ravashin
the contents-of written sources (legends).
feeling-listening reception is the most important
factor, though it is very individual from the
point of view of the genesis of the makom melodies,
based on the subject reception of the listener.
This can be seen as an objective fact, however.
The condition is the existence of the necessary
skills to understand the makom melodies, relating
to them as to something sacred, a gift of the
Great Creator. It is this feeling of sacredness
of these melodies that gives birth to a special
excited reeling to them by different peoples.
to this, makoms have been passed down from generation
to generation to our day.
The first people to hear these sacred melodies
are thought to be the prophets - the mediators
between the Creator and people. In this connection,
the sacred melodies are organic, an inseparable
part of the ceremonial practice, the form for
the reception of the sacred, the way of revelation
these sacred melodies with the term "path"
leads to the following conclusion: with their
help, the prophets showed people the path of truth,
the true path of attaining true happiness. In
the Koran, in the Bee Sura, we read "We sent
each people a message: "Bow down to Allah,
and turn away from paganism." Allah led some
on a straight path, and others were fated to be
lost. Go over the land and see what was the end
of those considered false.*
sources in the study of makoms are medieval literature
and legends. Special interest is raised by the
Traktat on music of the Bukhara musician at the
end of the 16th c and early 17th c Darvish Alt
Changi (1,2). Referring to such famous musicians
as Khodja Abdulkadyr ibn Abdurrakhman Marogii,
Khodja Safiuddin ibn Abdulmumin and Sultan Uyais
Djalair, Darvish Ali shows that oat first there
were seven makoms from the seven prophets."
The rest were later "products" of creative
masters of this art form.
the basis of legends, we can get a general impression
of the character of ancient makom melodies. The
significance of the intonation of the cry as the
melodic substance of the majority of makoms may
be seen. Thus the makom Rost, after the legend,
"offers itself as a cry of the first man
(Adam) for the lost paradise and wasted bliss.
The makom Ushshak came down from the grandfather
of Noah (Nukh), whose name comes from the word
noukha (navkha) - cry, as he cried and his cry
was the melody of the Ushshak." (1)
about the characteristic attribute of the intonation
of the cry, we come to the conclusion that cries
have their basis in an underlying intonational-melodic
structure. The tendency here has a universal character,
which explains their unified genetic basis.
ethno-music history classifies the underlying
intonations as one of the first forms of structure
of musical (melodic) thought. As sources verify
in the world music, underlying musical-international
thought ruled for a long historical period. (3)
Even today, we can see specific forms in ritual
songs of various peoples. Thus in Uzbek music
the structural property is clearest in those genres
of national music which such specialists as V.
Beliaev, I. Radjabov, F. Karomatov, T. Vyzgo have
traced to ancient musical folklore - the wedding
yor-yor, marsiia (cry) children's songs and others.
of the structure are heard in makoms such as Tasnifi
Dugokh, Sarakhbori Navo, Savti Ushshok, Mushkiloti
Dugokh. However, unlike folk music, the structure
in makoms is transformed, achieving a rising character.
It would be more accurate to speak of the submission
of elements of the structure to the new melodic
style, the basis of which consists of the rising
quality of melodic movement. The aim of this is
to achieve a cumulative zone (audj) and the consequent
return to the starting point. Thus, a new style,
in our understanding, is connected not with the
underlying movement of international-melodic structure,
but with the processes, contrary to it, when the
entire flow of musical sound has a clear expressive
rising character, formulated over centuries.
our opinion, the basic international sources of
the new style are the forms of reading the Koran
on the canons of tadjvid and tartil, and the principles
of formation of melodies of the; Turkic peoples
- the kui.
reading of the Koran (by kori, khafiz) accompany
the creation of form-structure of the rising plan.
This process, achieving a unique reflection in
the melodies of makoms, is universal and the basic
principle of the new style. We can suppose that
it flows from an assimilation of local musical
traditions, including kui, and has a general form-structure
of a rising character." Precisely this ancient
Turkic substrata ... to a large extent determines
the uniqueness of the makom in the system of the
new, style full of details appeared in the ideal
conceptions of Sufism, the main goal of which
was the esoteric comprehension of the Absolute
Truth, the spiritual unity with the Creator in
a state of ecstasy (vajd). This goal was achieved
by moral self-perfection by a step-by-step movement
on the path called tarikat (way, suluk (road)).
On this path there are seven stops which in Arabic
are called makoms. Thus the makom, according to
Sufis, signifies the seven basic stops achieved
by the traveler (salik, miurid), going on the
path of moral self-perfection (5, p36). Thus the
semantics of the new style in music is a unique
project of spiritual uplift to the Absolute.
form of spiritual rising to the Absolute is objectified
through the idea of pilgrimage to holy cities,
and finds a secret expression (batin) in specially
- Rokhavii (from the word rokh (path) ) - the form of the path;
- Khidjaz (area in Saudi Arabia of the sacred cities Mecca and Medina) - shows the direction of the path and symbolizes the end of the path;
- Zangula (bell-ringer) - form of the traveling caravan;
- Irak (name of the country where the caravan road of pilgrims is found) - the thorny path that the salik must overcome if he wishes to reach his goal;
- Isfahan (the city near Khidjaz) - symbol of nearing one's goal;
- Zirofkand (jump, relaxation, rest) - achieving the final goal, ending the pilgrimage;
- Kuchak (the second, additional circle Zirofakand, meaning small) - the small world, microcosm.
The relation of makoms of Buzruk and Kuchak (small) symbolizes the Sufi idea about the interrelation of the small and large world - we learn about the world through the microcosm.
We should note that in the system of makoms, the study of Sufism may be considered on many levels.
In medieval interpretations of music, the 12 makoms often were seen as 12 isometric circles placed within each other (6). This has great significance in giving the idea of interconnectedness of the microcosm and macrocosm. By means of the concentric circles (symbols of perfection and eternity) the character of the movement of the heavens and the striving for the uplift of the spirit through music were expressed.
The ideas of Sufism, widespread through society, had great influence on all forms of artistic creation. In part, they were reflected in the oral creative arts, in classical poetry and literature, as well as in architecture and painting. A special place was held by music, through which it was possible to achieve the desired ecstatic condition bajd, by which Sufis esoterically know the Truth.
We should note that the Sufi conception "perfect man" permeates the contemporary form of the makom. As a result, the idea-semantic aspect appears on various levels, as on the level of one separate part and on the level of the makom cycle.
1. Semeonov A.A. Sredneazitskyi traktat po muzyke Dervisha Ali (XVII v.). Tashkent, 1946.
2. Dervish All Changi. Traktat o muzyke(per. s pers. D. Rashidovoy). Ruk., bib-ka Nil iskusstvoznaniya, inv. NS 879.
3. Muzykalnaya kultura drevnego mira. L., 1937.
4. Mukhtambetova A.I. Aspekty sravnitelnogo izucheniya zapadno-kazakhstanskogo kuya i sredneaziatskogo makoma//Miizyka Vostoka i Zapada, Vzaimodeystvie kultur. Alma-Ata, 1991.
5. Bertels E.E. Sufism i sufiyskaya literatura. M., 1965.
6. Urmavi Safiddin. Kitobul-advor (per.s arab. A. Nazarova). Ruk., bib-ka Nil iskusstvoznaniya, inv. N849.