Soibjon Begmatov                        Uzbek music of oral tradition.
san'atshunoslik fanlari nomzodi,
O`zbekiston Davlat Konservatoriyasi dotsenti


        Musical art of Uzbek people was generated and developed during many centuries, leaning on two huge layers. It is professional music of oral tradition and folklore.
The professional branch of a musical heritage, being is connected to display of individual - personal thinking, includes mainly large-scale compositions. Among them -makams, and also, advanced under the form sustained in makam traditions, tool plays and songs. In this line makams as one of the most perfect samples of classical music, have special the importance. Having appeared in bowels of cultural - historical development of Uzbek and Tadjik peoples, the system of makam has developed in XVIII century in Bukhara as the classical musical genre which has received the name " Bukhara shashmakam".
        On structure shashmakam represents it is sufficient the complex and unique cycle consisting of several products rounded on ideas. To have about it complete and clear representation it is possible only under condition of its listening in the performing interpretation appropriate to it. Observance of the given requirement has essentially important value as shashmakam has focused in itself many national - original fig. Namely: it is focused on characteristic for geoclimatic conditions of the Central Asia the specific voice device distinguished by a wide range, actively - intense&, but a pleasant manner intonationary; it bases on receptions of game, caoeiecaea?aiey and features of adjustment of strings of one of conducting national musical tools - tanburs; it, at last, operates with principles metrorythm the organizations of the melodies, resulting of a national nature.
        The composition shashmakam develops from 6 the monumental cyclic products having in traditional musical culture a lot of various semantic values, incorporated in from names -Buzruk, Growth, Navo, Dugah, Segah, Irak. Every makams, in turn, includes them about 50 large, tool and vocal sections which grouping is carried out on the basis of complex structural laws. Logicality and perfection of the last it is caused not so much by scale of the sizes of parts, how many flexibility of internal mutual relation between vocal and tool sections. The hierarchical picture of shashmakam, by consideration from simple to complex, can be submitted as follows: it is often, a minor cycle, section, a poppy, oaoiaeii.
        Everyone a poppy consists of two large sections: tool - Mushkilot and vocal - Nasr. The minor cycle of unit Mushkilot includes some parts - Tasnif, Tarje, Gardun, Muhammas and Sakil. Vocal section nasr includes two large parts which have received name I and II groups "shube". The first group shube includes small cycles:
        Sarahbor together with VI (VII, VIII) Tarona;
        Talkin in a place with V (VI) Talkin;
        Nasr in a place with V (VI, VII) Tarona and ufor.
        The second group shube leaves from first that in it there is no intermediate part shube differs from first that, ??i in it there is no intermediate part Tarona. It consists from Mugulcha - savt, Talkincha, Kashkarcha, Sakiynama and final Ufar.
        One of dual features of the products included shashmakam, consists that they can be executed as independently from each other, and as a cycle. At the same time it is obvious, that only at cyclic reproduction in them all opportunities are more full shown.
        In area Performance of makam to each instrumentalist and the singer before the high requirements dictating necessity of achievement of a certain level professional skill are. In other words, questions of quality get here rather important value. And it is fair, especial if to take into account, that unskilled performance makams can create the impression deformed about them at students.
        In performing practice of makam performers, basing on purposeful studying of traditions, mastering by the conventional skills of skill it is considered the major task. However, nevertheless the most necessary conditions are the natural data (skill to hear, hearing etc.) and regular fruitful occupations. For this reason in makam performance for a long time were guided by an original technique of preparation of the pupil. Based on oral traditional a way of training, this long-term process of practical development of the perfect manner of performance, finally, to provide ability of the trainee, after delivery of special examination, a message independent performing activity. The known shape which has reached our time nowadays shashmakam was kept thanking this technique.
        In the beginning of XX century to sphere traditional performing the supporting role began to be removed. The principal cause of it is covered that in this period the attention to mass genres considerably amplifies. Nevertheless, scientific researches spent for this direction and researches yielded the fruitful results: since 20th years makam was fixed as the musical text in V.Uspenskim's three variants; B.Fajzullaevym, S.Sohibovym and F.Shahobovym; and academician J.Razhabi, written down shashmakam in performance leading him of ensemble makam performers on a magnetic tape. One of the most joyful events of the modernity - opening in 1972 on the basis of the Tashkent State Conservatory is Oriental music faculty. It is a monastery already during 25 years became remarkable eociaoie the national staff, bringing up the whole galaxy of talented executors -makam performers.
        Now traditional music is studied under special programs in all regional musical educational institutions Republics of Uzbekistan. It is taught adequately by the experts who have received education on faculty of east music. Realizing necessity studying of a modern condition of traditional music, taking into account positive interest to shashmakam about the party of broad masses, and also with the purpose of revealing perspective young instrumentalists and singers, since 1983 (time in four years) will be carried out Republican, Zone and international reviews - competitions of young makam performers, becoming traditional. ?n May, 1996, for example, has passed next IV international competition. It is remarkable, that in it, alongside with solo performances of singers and instrumentalists, ensembles of makam performers have successfully taken part.
        At the present stage in the field of our Republic gives concerts more 10 makam the ensembles having a high professional performing level. Ensembles from cities as Bukhara, Tashkent, Urgench, Samarkand, Margilan, Fergana, Andizhan, Kokand, Namangan are among them
         If the statement is fair, that language is a certificate existence of the nation that art defines its spiritual shape is doubtless also. Conformable to monumental minarets and the majestic monuments of culture numbering a thousand-year history, Uzbek makams, sated with the deep maintenance and having high aesthetic and art advantages, are the bright certificate of spiritual riches of our people.

© Husniddin ATO,2003-2008